E-governance is an important initiative of the government, which utilizes information technology in performing various activities from the doorstep of the company itself. The article analyses how currently E-governance is being implemented from the portal of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs thus far and its importance under the new law as well.
1. E-Governance through Ministry of Corporate Affairs
The Ministry of Corporate Affairs is relevant portal for all its stakeholders, which include the following:
- One Million Plus companies incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 /2013
- 28,000 entities under Limited Liability Partnership
- Chartered Accountants
- Companies Secretaries
- Cost Accountants
Earlier known as Department of Company Affairs, since 2004 it is known as Ministry of Corporate Affairs. From 2008, MCA is e-governance portal of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. The portal offers the following services:
(a) Electronic filing: As a part of Annual e-Filing, Companies incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 are required to e-file the following documents with the Registrar of Companies (RoC):
- Profit & Loss Account Form 23ACA to be filed by all Companies
- Annual Return Form 20B to be filed by Companies having share capital
- Annual Return
Form 21A to be filed by companies without share capital
Compliance Certificate Form 66 to be filed by Companies having paid up capital of Rs.10 lakh to Rs. 5 Crore
|Balance-Sheet||Form 23AC to be filed by all Companies|
|Profit & Loss Account||Form 23ACA to be filed by all Companies|
|Annual Return||Form 20B to be filed by Companies having share capital|
|Annual Return||Form 21A to be filed by companies without share capital|
|Compliance Certificate||Form 66 to be filed by Companies having paid up capital of Rs.10 lakh to Rs. 5 Crore|
Similarly for annual e filing of documents the portal provide the option of filing.
(b) Changing Company Information
The portal of MCA provide for any company to change the following informations:
|Approval of names/change of names of company||
|Conversion of Public company to a private company and vice a versa||
|Change of Director/ Managing Director/COO/CFO/Company Secretary||
|Changing the Registered Office of the Company||
|To increase the authorized capital of the company||
|Conversion of Private Limited Company to Public Limited Company||
|To register a charge or make modification in registered charges||
|To report repayment or satisfaction of registered charges||
|Alteration of Company Information by Foreign Company||A foreign company can change its information by filing Form FC-2 and Form FC-3. Form FC-2 is required when there
(c) Registration of a Company: The companies can incorporate through MCA portal. The portal also provides for registration of the companies under the section 8 of the Companies Act and Foreign Companies as well.
(d) Digital Signature Certificate Services: The Information Technology Act, 2000 has provisions for use of Digital Signatures on the documents submitted in electronic form in order to ensure the security and authenticity of the documents filed electronically. This is secure and authentic way to submit a document electronically. As such, all filings done by the companies/LLPs under MCA21 e-Governance programme are required to be filed using Digital Signatures by the person authorized to sign the documents.
(e) Director Identification Number Services: The concept of a Director Identification Number (DIN) was introduced for the first time with the insertion of Sections 266A to 266G of Companies (Amendment) Act, 2006. As such, all the existing and intending Directors have to obtain DIN within the prescribed time-frame as notified.
(f) Track SRN/ Transaction Status: A facility has been made available to the general public to view master details of any company/LLP registered with Registrar of Companies. This facility may be availed by clicking “View Company Master Data”. A similar facility has also been made available in respect of the ‘Register of Charges’ for the companies/LLPs by clicking on to the ‘View Index of Charges’ and for the viewing the details of the signatories of any company/LLP by clicking on ‘View Signatory Details’.
(g) Public Search of Trademarks
(h) View Public Documents
(i) Online grievance redressal mechanism
2. Investors Complaint through MCA Portal
Investors can address his complaint at the portal for which they require the following:
- Corporate Identity Number (CIN) and Global Location Number (GLN)
- Address of registered office
- Nature of complaint registered include related to-
(iii) Fixed deposit/non-receipts of amounts;
(iv) Non-filing of return of cessation of director form 32;
(v) Other complaints
For each complaint, company is required to use separate form.
The e-form filled at this portal goes straight to the site of concerned ROC. However, the complaint against the Non-Banking Financial Institutions and Plantation Companies is not heard at this portal.
3. Corporate Sewa Kendra
For any issue pertaining to Company’s Registration, E-filing and view public documents, the companies can approach the Corporate Sewa Kendras. A special DIN Cell for queries relating to DIN has also being created.
4. Company Law 2013 and E-Governance
(a) List of Documents to be maintained in electronic form: The following documents under the New Company Act are required to be maintained in either paper of electronic form:
1. The books of account
6. Minutes of Meetings
8. Register of companies maintained by the Registrar
(b) Records of Company to be maintained in Electronic Form: Every listed company or a company having not less than 1000 shareholders, debenture holders and other security holders, shall maintain its records in electronic form.
(c) Postal Ballot: A company shall pass resolutions only by postal ballot in respect of such items of business as declared by the Central Government. In postal ballot voting is done by post or electronic means within 30 days of dispatch of notice.
(d) Payment of dividend: Section 123 of the New Act provides that any dividend payable in cash may be paid by: cheque or warrant or in any electronic mode to the shareholder entitled to the payment of the dividend.
(e) Passing of Resolution By Circulation: Section 175 of the New Act provides that a resolution shall be deemed to have been duly passed by the Board of Directors, by circulation, only when it has been circulated in draft, together with the necessary papers, by hand delivery or by post or by courier, or through such electronic means which may include E-mail or fax.
(f) Voting through electronic means: Every listed company or a company having not less than 1000 shareholders, shall provide to its members facility to exercise their right to vote at GM by electronic means. A member may exercise his right to vote at any GM by electronic means and company may pass any resolution (ordinary/special) by electronic voting system.
(g) Notice of Meetings: A record of any failed transmissions of notices and subsequent re-sending shall be retained by or on behalf of the company as ‘‘proof of sending’’. The Company shall not be held responsible for failure in transmission beyond its control. If the member doesnot provide an updated e-mail address, the company shall not be in default.
(h) Notice of Meetings Rule 18, Companies (Management and Administration) Rules, 2014 A company may give notice of meeting through electronic mode. A notice may be sent through e-mail as a text or as an attachment to e-mail or as a notification providing electronic link or URL for accessing such notice and simultaneously be placed on company’s website. ‘‘Electronic mode’’ shall mean any communication sent by a company through its authorized and secured computer programme which is capable of producing confirmation and keeping record of such communication addressed to the person entitled to receive such communication at the last electronic mail address provided by the member.
(j) Notice of Meetings Board meeting shall be called by giving not less than 7 days’ notice, which may be sent by electronic means. General meeting may be called by giving not less than clear 21 days’ notice through electronic mode in prescribed manner.
(k) Service of Documents: A document may be served on a company electronically. A document may be served on Registrar or any member by sending it in electronic mode
(l) Inspection and copies of records maintained in electronic form: Company shall allow inspection in records in electronic form or provide copies of those records containing a clear reproduction of the whole or part thereof, on payment of not exceeding ten rupees per page.
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved continuation of MCA21 project for its second cycle from January 2013 to July 2021. The Corporate Affairs Ministry would extend e-governance to various related offices such as the Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO) and Company Law Board (CLB) in the second cycle. New services like SMS and mobile enabled interfaces will be provided for improved service delivery. The government today approved the continuation of e-governance initiative MCA21, related to compliance of companies with various laws, till July 2021. An initiative of the Corporate Affairs Ministry, MCA21 is designed to fully automate all processes related to enforcement and compliance of the legal requirements under the Companies Act.
 (a) Documents included under Section 2(36) “document” of the New Act which inlcudes summons, notice, requisition, order, declaration, form and register, whether issued, sent or kept in pursuance of this Act or under any other law for the time being in force or otherwise